Microbiological profile in chronic granulomatous disease patients in a single Brazilian primary immunodeficiency center

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Aimée Filippini Bifulco Oliveira
Antonio Carlos Pastorino
Mayra de Barros Dorna
Ana Paula Beltran Moschione Castro
José Roberto Mendes Pegler
Beni Morgenstern
Magda Maria Sales Carneiro-Sampaio

Keywords

Chronic Granulomatous Disease, Staphylococcal Infections, Aspergillus, Mycobacterium, Abscess, Pediatrics

Abstract

Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency. Infections of lung, skin, lymph nodes, and liver are the hallmark of CGD and frequently the initial manifestation of the disease. The aim of the present paper is to describe the sites of infections and their causative agents in 38 pediatric patients with CGD.


Methods: This retrospective, single-center cohort study included CGD patients followed at the allergy and immunology unit of a tertiary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil over the last 40 years. Sites of infections and their causative agents were described.


Results: Thirty-eight patients were included (36 males). The median age of onset of symptoms was 45 days (ranging from 7 days–7 years), and the median age at diagnosis was 23 months (ranging from 1 month–12 years). In all, 31.6% of the patients reported a family history of child deaths and 21% (eight cases) had another male family member with CGD. The most common infections were pneumonia (81.6%), skin infections (50.0%), adenitis (42.1%), and liver abscess (23.7%); 188 cultures were positive (85.6% bacteria; 14.4% fungi). The most prevalent bacterial agents were Staphylococcus sp. (12.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.3%). Aspergillus sp. and Candida sp. were 56% and 22.2% of the isolated fungi, respectively. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated in 5.6% and Mycobacterium bovis in one patient (0.9%).


Conclusion: Staphylococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspergillus sp. were the most frequent agents found in this cohort. M. tuberculosis should be considered in endemic area. Detection of infectious agents drives to the adequate treatment and benefits the evolution of patients with CGD.

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